They looked to the one leader who could speak for all the Chiricahua bands, Geronimo’s father-in-law Cochise. Michael Darrow, Fort Sill Tribal Historian: We had many people in our tribe who had the characteristics that would appropriate for being a chief, who were well respected and who were known for making careful decisions that were appropriate for the well being of the people. Goon (archival): Well, you’ll have to get Wilson out here. Beau Little Sky, Activist, Oglala Lakota Tribe: At first we thought we were bein’ attacked. He was an improviser. Victoria Lindsey Levine, Musicians Elbys Hugar, Chiricahua Apache: The greatest thing a person can have is the power. Everybody acknowledges that somebody has a certain power, like the power of medicine, the power of healing, the power of seeing or feeling something at a distance. Narrator: Over the course of the siege, government forces would pound the village with more than 500,000 rounds of ammunition. We will move to San Carlos, Geronimo told Clum. Narrator: Some miners were barbarous — poisoning the Apaches’ food with strychnine, cutting fetuses out of the bellies of pregnant women, selling Apache girls into slavery. Dwight Campbell Intent on keeping the Chiricahuas on the reservation for good, General Crook allowed them to decide where they wanted to live. They are dragged, some screaming and weeping, others in silent terror, to a boarding school where they are to be remade into white kids. And there they sat for weeks in deep, deep snow and ice. Five thousand native people had died; hundreds of men, women and children who did survive — "heathen malefactors" Josiah Winslow called them — were loaded onto boats, shipped to the West Indies and Europe, and sold into slavery. Library and Archives of Canada They have this image of the colonies as if there's just great space for them to occupy and there are great resources that are for the taking. He tried his hand at farming, but didn’t like it and he bridled at being bossed around by young, white officials. Jace Weaver, Writer: John Ross is trying to hold the Nation together, to keep it in place. And everyone in his immediate family, his immediate vicinity, believes that he’s dead...But he miraculously comes back to life. Narrator: Chief Bad Cob, medicine man Leonard Crow Dog, and Russell Means rushed to Washington for a meeting at the White House. Narrator: For several years as one by one Apache chiefs agreed to reservation life, Cochise and the Chiricahuas continued to fight. But he wrote back to the British Prime Minister, and he says that, “I’ve talked to the Indian chiefs, and there are some extraordinary characters amongst them. So they couldn’t shoot the flares. Allen Nail Twenty-five English towns were destroyed; more than two thousand English colonists died. Seth Zimmerman  Narrators: Journalists flocked to the Southwest and provided lurid and riveting accounts of the fugitives. Yes. In the frontier town of Tucson, to the East of Chiricahua territory, newspapers called for retribution. He was somebody that everybody knew, everybody knew his Mom and he was there for all the right reasons, fighting for something that he cared about. Voice of Anita Lester, Chiricahua Apache: He wasn’t alone. The Dreamer marked East, South, West and North with sacred cattail pollen. R. David Edmunds, Historian: And in June 1806 the Shawnee Prophet predicts an eclipse of the sun — called a “Black Sun” by the Shawnees — which is a sign of great things to come — a sign of great change. Often they were victims themselves. On March 11th, revitalized occupation leaders made a startling announcement. John Allegra/Allegra Farms  So that by the time Lalawethika was thirteen, roughly half of their immediate family members had either been killed or had voluntarily removed from Ohio. Narrator: No pictures were ever made of him during his lifetime. R. David Edmunds, Historian: And you couldn’t think, in some ways, of a more fitting way for Tecumseh to die. Aloysius Henry We’re the ones who have to take action to protect these people who don’t understand. Whipping his musket to his shoulder, he fired blindly into the gloom, mortally wounding a Kickapoo warrior as he attempted to steal into the camp. Britain...transfers to the new United States all territory that it has claimed south of the Great Lakes — east of the Mississippi — north of Florida. Paul Coggins The wings of the Great Buzzard had carved the mountains and. Dennis Banks, Former AIM Leader, Ojibwa Tribe: (Singing AIM song). And of course, the British were at a crisis point themselves; they needed American Indian allies. So I went over and I said-uh, “You folks, we’ve rescued you. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. While English authorities deliberated on whether to sell the boy into slavery, or simply murder him, the Puritans gave thanks to their God. English authorities arrested three of Philip's men, tried them for the murder, and executed them. Harrison: The United States has not treated the Indians dishonestly nor unjustly. Federal Agent (archival): If there’s such a thing as an impasse on an impasse, then that’s what we have. The Calvary was always chasing us somewhere. Then one killed the other. Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma Things might have turned out a lot differently had they not been distracted. Colin G. Calloway, Historian: This is a warning to other people, to other Indian people. Narrator: In a few short years, Americans came to view Geronimo in an entirely new way. David Roberts, Writer: Peaches, we must remember, is not a Chiricahua. “If we were seen by a civilian,” one Apache recalled, “it meant that Geronimo would be reported to the military and they would be after us, so there was nothing to do but kill...It was terrible to see little children killed…but the soldiers killed our women and children too.” Once Geronimo feigned friendship with a rancher, asking him to slaughter some sheep and cook them for his men. That’s all that’s left of them. Keith Thomas A life taken in that way must be balanced out. If you don’t have the numbers on your side, you make a sudden attack and try to overwhelm and demoralize the enemy quickly. Larry Mann Palace of the Governors Photo Archives Mitch Hirsch By May, more than eight hundred warriors had streamed back into the village — while across the Northwest more than four thousand warriors were on the move — the largest Indian confederacy ever mustered on the North American continent. What it did to me and what it did to thousands of other children across this country. In the summer of 1866, while he was in Washington negotiating anew with the U.S., John Ross fell ill. As he neared death, Ross knew the Cherokee Nation faced big challenges in the coming years — and new kinds of encroachments — but the Chief took comfort in the fact that the. Alissa Martin Kent Frizzell (archival): I frankly think that the barring of the news media has had an effect on negotiations. He is said to have remarked that Chief Justice Marshall made his decision. Robert Haozous, Chiricahua Apache: When Geronimo made that final break, it’s hard to understand what was going through his mind, because he knew. He never reneges on those basic as principles of the sacrosanct aboriginal holding of this territory. Del-Marie Bachand But now we see you are drawing back like a fat animal, running off with its tail between its legs...Listen! The humidity, the heat, even the bugs were different, the mosquitoes and everything else. This information came to me through the tribal government and through the FBI. Elizabeth Hopkins: Fill up the pot my child and fetch some more water. Stephen Warren, Historian: In 1805, his family recalls an event in which Lalawethika falls into a fire, he just — he collapses. “Our base camp” he told the other men, “has been invaded by U.S. troops.” They raced back to find that Crook had occupied their camp with several hundred soldiers and Apache scouts. Narrator: The war ground on — month after month — exacting a terrible price. Paul Chaat Smith, Writer, Comanche Nation: There was absolutely an element in AIM that considered itself a revolutionary organization who were comfortable being around guns, who absolutely loved the idea of AIM being outlaws — who just wanted to get it on. In this case the powwows were ineffective. It became the first major focus of his administration. You know, it wasn’t home. Sherman Tiger, Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma: For some people, they may call him a troublemaker. Colin Calloway Like most of the Chiricahuas, Geronimo had never set foot on a train before and had never left the Southwest. Stan Swofford Keith Basso, Anthropologist: Crook’s strategy was as simple as it was difficult to enforce. He considers them an obstacle. Ryan Pratt Colin G. Calloway, Historian: Indian people shaped this continent. Colin G. Calloway, Historian: Massasoit must have wondered what kind of world he was handing on to his sons, to his children. Cassius Spears, Jr. Narrator: At dawn on April 19, 1882, Geronimo and a group of armed Chiricahuas slipped onto San Carlos reservation. Then, citing a national emergency, he suspended the upcoming tribal elections. How to dismiss the power of their elders. The Master of Life knows no boundaries, nor will his red people acknowledge any. And to retain what was left of the Indian homeland. David White Ilka Hartmann When the group was ambushed by Mexicans, he lost both his wives. Narrator: Reservation officials feared that the medicine man might incite a revolt and sent eighty-five soldiers and twenty-three Apache scouts to arrest or kill him. Ed Dabney  Bonnie Lafave  Robin Everett-McGuirl, Prop Assistants  Russell Means (archival):  The leadership of the Oglala Sioux here present in Wounded Knee, have declared Wounded Knee an independent country. Geronimo and the Chiricahuas finally accepted Crook’s terms. “Where today are the Pequots? Zelda Yazza, Chiricahua Apache: There was nothing there. The Ridges were going the way of other tribes around them — the Creeks, the Choctaws, and the Chickasaws. You must not dress like the Whites...You must not get drunk. David LaCarubba He fancied fine English lacework, and richly detailed wampum. Elbys Hugar, Chiricahua Apache: When the baby is born, there’s a small ceremony for the cradle. They must have been made by the Uktena here, too.” Part-Cherokee writer, Scott Momaday, talks about stories in the blood, or memory in the blood. He knew what he was facing. Jill Lepore, Historian: And the final day of thanksgiving, of the war, is the day Philip's head is marched into Plymouth. Mabey Bridge & Shore Inc. There was a whole network of information exchange between the tribes in the area. and a bitter lesson in British reliability that Tecumseh would never forget. On the night of February 27, 1973, fifty-four cars rolled, horns blaring, into a small hamlet on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The issues became more clear. Initially, Tecumseh remains in the Prophet’s shadow. Mark Hetherington  Gayle Ross, Descendant of Chief John Ross: They followed the law. Brant Fagan Fearing imminent bloodshed, William Henry Harrison called for a contingent of federal troops to reinforce the territorial capital at Vincennes — then sent a messenger to Prophetstown itself — urging the Prophet to come to Vincennes to air grievances about the Treaty of Fort Wayne. Philip J. Deloria, Historian: The reservation becomes this dominant way of containing Indian people. Gayle Ross, Descendant of Chief John Ross: No one could have predicted that one of the hardest winters in memory would strike that year. But this became the majority sentiment in the space of just a handful of years. They were taught to run and run and run as young ones. New Echota Historic Site, Calhoun, GA  It was time for the Cherokee leaders to take the best cash offer from Washington, and get their people to safety west of the Mississippi. Nookau: (in Nipmuc) We have been first to do good to the English. Federal officials would keep the inflammatory tribal chairman on the sidelines for the rest of the occupation. Co-producer Julianna Brannum captures moments from the set of Wounded Knee. Nancy Kwant  Amy Kramer Alf Wilson The Hillside School, Series Advisors Philip: (in Nipmuc) O Grandfather Sun, I am thankful for this beautiful day. He wasn’t alone. Steve Hendricks, Writer: One of the things that AIM tried to do was to return “Indian-ness” to all Indians. The English came from a society where land was in short supply. Massasoit: (in Nipmuc) Is that you Winslow? Garry Dow On August 12th, 1810, a party of seventy-five warriors with Tecumseh in command arrived at Harrison’s headquarters at Vincennes for the historic confrontation. Yearning to see his mother at San Carlos, Peaches slipped away one night, and walked backed to the reservation. U.S. troops followed close behind. And they didn’t have much ammunition. Lisa Brooks, Abenaki Historian: The way that native people refer to it is that the world turned upside down. I mean, if there had been more Indians on the ground, the Indians might have been capable of inflicting great damage. Ranchers pleaded with the White House for protection. who he was, how he lived his life, why he did what he did, and how that affected the rest of the tribe. Or could Georgia do as she pleased within her borders. Thirteen of the eighteen women had died. Neal Salisbury, Historian: In the years 1617 to 19, an epidemic swept through New England. Independence National Historical Park But John Ross was a Cherokee because of his mother’s blood — an accepted member of the Bird clan. They didn’t like it at all. Paul Chaat Smith, Writer, Comanche Nation: The federal census, I think every decade through the mid to end of the 20th Century, show Pine Ridge as the poorest jurisdiction in the United States. Narrator: Tuberculosis spread through the boarding school. Try some of this…. Joulles Wright  Will Toubman, Location Assistants But the time came when the great Chiricahua leader realized his people could not resist forever. In the alliance of tribes that now rose up to stop the white invasion, the Shawnees would take the lead, and Tecumseh himself first make a name for himself on the field of battle. Then I ran across to help get gas in the filling station. They wanted to defend the Canadian line, and of course they needed manpower — only the Indians could fill that void for them. The final decision on handling the strangers would fall to him. Eric Fox Vernon Simmons, Chiricahua Apache: I don’t care what you put up against him. Michael Rossi So this sense that we're the same people now. Amy Whitten, Art Coordinators  The Dreamer marked East, South, West and North with sacred cattail pollen. But birds and little animals longed for day. But as the light increases, it becomes clear to the Americans that the Indians lack the numbers, and that they lack the ammunition to carry this assault home. Just get back in the car til we get the word. Fay Sutherland, Catering Eustin Murphy After a brutal military campaign, the American Army forced them into submission. And I live in Pine Ridge at that gunpoint. Even Geronimo was tired. There was a deep rumbling, droning noise. Les infos, chiffres, immobilier, hotels & le Mag Footage Farm USA Ed Castillo Joseph Chase Meath Winterthur Museum Get up to the minute entertainment news, celebrity interviews, celeb videos, photos, movies, TV, music news and pop culture on By 1830, the Ridge had already struck a series of hard bargains with the United States. Karen O’Keefe They have taken upon themselves to say this tract of land belongs to the Miamis, this to the Delawares and so on...Our father tells us that we have no business on the Wabash. They look at the hills and they say, “Those look like the hills in old Cherokee country. Beeld en Geluid, VPRO We don’t look at him as a hero. Narrator: John Ridge grew to manhood among white Christian educators, absorbing the lessons of the bible and the U.S. Constitution alike. But if you say 'my land,' you have to say "na-tahh-keem". The scarred right hand of Philip was given to Alderman as a trophy of the war. Absentee Shawnee Resource Center It was part of our survival. Narrator: The Americans, Cochise believed, were an irritant, not a threat. And then after you eat the contents, then you saved the shell. But the shared danger did unite the colonies...and they lashed back. He had a kind of a big long-barreled shotgun. Here in John Ross he’s got someone who’s only an eighth Cherokee, is very familiar with white society because of his father. (Cheering). Tecumseh and Brock together mastermind the capture of Detroit. It was Ross who authored a new constitution that all Cherokees. The Americans invade Canada. Jean O’Brien, Ojibwe Historian: The Pequot war established in Indian minds the potential savagery of the English. And right around that same time, in the 1650s, they make one attempt to convert the Indians to Christianity. AMG Karen Kupperman, Historian: A normal epidemic hits a few people and then other people get sick but the first people start getting better. Traditional Cherokee #1:  What are you doing to stop this? When the shooting broke out, she and her sister, Ka-keek-sa-we, ran down into the ravine and made it to some plum bushes. They chose the fertile banks of Turkey Creek a spot resembling the cool mountain pastures of their traditional home. Karen Lovell And for Buddy Lamont to die was more of a tragedy than most people could bear. James Abourezk (archival): If you wanted to leave the Wounded Knee area could you go? Carter Camp, Former AIM Leader, Ponca Tribe: If they came and killed all of us, it would be recorded and it would be seen by the world where the 1890 massacre wasn’t. Jace Weaver, Writer: Now, finally, this was their victory. It’s intended for everyone. Kieran Sequoyah Collection of The New-York Historical Society Andrea Leahy Crook played Apaches against each other. Ashlee Craig I am a Warrior, and all the Warriors will meet together in two or three moons from this. But those who refused and who would continue raiding he vowed to hunt down to the very last man. Narrator: For those who followed the Pilgrims across the Atlantic, the first "Thanks-giving" would enter into national mythology, where it remains the bright opening chapter of the American creation story. Narrator: Reluctantly, Geronimo and the band agreed to return to the reservation. News of the battle shot across the country. John Cameron, Boom Operators And she could hear the firing and the firing and hollering and then finally it was quiet. The Indians were a very mobile force. So it will be with you Creek, Chickasaws and Choctaws. For the first time in years most Chiricahuas felt settled. And he forgives his brother. Harrison had no need to be; the resources were all behind him. Corbis In March of 1621, in what is now southeastern Massachusetts, Massasoit, the leading sachem of the Wampanoag, sat down to negotiate with a ragged group of English colonists. It’s convenient rhetoric to say that Cherokees are inferior and we need to get them out of the way, out of harm’s way, as Jackson would put it. No one could make a decision, and no one would endorse us and then the women started to talk. But when you actually had to wait for the ice and sit there and maybe you're sleeping on snow but you're probably sleeping on melted mud and you're sick, your baby's sick; your grandmother's sick; and there's nothing you can do about it. Jonathan Perry, Aquinnah Wampanoag: And suddenly it's all on him. Ronan L. Lefkowitz (Violin)  Michael Darrow, Fort Sill Tribal Historian: Our people were being told, “Well, that’s all over with. Tad Emerson Baker Ashley Patterson  Nicholas Langholff, Second Assistant Directors NPS Photo. Cacique Levy Narrator: Within Wounded Knee, the days were relatively calm, while the nights exploded with gunfire. Soon, San Carlos was swarming with US soldiers. Neal Salisbury, Historian: The explorers who describe these regions all describe the native peoples of New England living in these very populous villages. For a moment, it looks as if the Indians have infiltrated the lines; there's confusion. Charles Whalen Nothing but the ravages of the pale-face destroyers. Juan Cruz Kevin McKiernan But the unanimous bloc of Southerners assured its passage in the Senate. Tecumseh fights in the battle, and eventually has to withdraw, with part of his warriors, towards the British fort. Jennifer A. Lopez He is kept under surveillance in the stronghold, because people already think he might be a turncoat. So with 86 syllables a Cherokee speaker could learn to write in several weeks. Theda Perdue, Historian: Christians had been cast out of their own Garden of Eden, but the Cherokees lived in their Eden. in northwestern Ohio and northeastern Indiana. At dawn on April 19, 1882, Geronimo and a group of armed Chiricahuas slipped onto San Carlos reservation. Jessie Little Doe, Mashpee Wampanoag Linguist: In Wampanoag tradition, if you're thinking about making trouble, you don't bring your women and you don't bring your children. Circus World Museum, Baraboo, Wisconsin And so the British keep telling the Indians, “Oh, well, you should stand up against the United States, and we will supply you with guns and ammunition...”. Tania Villacres Reporter (archival):  I understand they want Henry Kissinger out here. (Laughs) He said he was Cherokee, you know. But we are standing here, and we are fighting for our homeland. I think in the end the wisdom took over. No! When the boy was grown, he faced the monster and killed it. The beaver population was badly depleted, collapsing the trade on which his relationship with the Pilgrims had been built. He is a person who leads by example, and people have faith in his leadership and his experience. At the very end of the treaty it says if you do these things then King James will esteem you his friend and ally. Pauline Hilton And the other children teased him so unmercifully that supposedly he came back home and insisted on being allowed to change into the everyday clothes of the other Cherokee children before he would go back out and join the festivities. To get them paranoid, and pointing fingers at one another. Alissa Martin, Costume Designers  Sadie Standingdeer Joseph Trimbach, Former FBI Agent: The director said “Tell Trimbach he can have anything he wants,” which was pretty neat because that was like a blank check.
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